Senin, 23 Juli 2007

Preferensi 2


Jeremy Bentham (1748-1823)
• Rasionalitas berpegang pada prinsip maximizing pleasure minimizing pain
• Dengan demikian, asumsi yang digunakan oleh Bentham adalah;
– kesenangan yang paling besar adalah yang jumlahnya paling banyak (the greatest happiness of the greatest number).
– tindakan yang baik adalah segala tindakan yang mengarahkan manusia menambah jumlah kesenangan, sementara tindakan yang tidak mengarah kepada kesenangan atau yang mengurangi jumlahnya adalah tindakan yang tidak baik.

Adam Smith (1776)
• Capitalism is based upon individual self interest and the pursuit of monetary gain
• Humans are largely ruled by sentiments, feelings and passions. Theology is not a source of guaranteed truth (spencer j. pack on smith’s view)
• The capitalist economy is not the result of total conscious planning
• Similarly, the moral education and socialization of a human is not the result of total conscious planning. It is the result of the constant feedback of society to the actions of the individual

F.Y Edgeworth (1881)
• Egoism merupakan nilai yang konsisten dalam diri setiap manusia yang mempengaruhi setiap keputusan-keputusan hidup, termasuk keputusan ekonomi

Self-Interest = Egoism = Utilitarianism = Individualism = Materialism = Rationalism = CAPITALISM


Roy Culpeper (1999)
• “It is the system that is at fault rather than particular actors--or, as Robert Wade put it metaphorically, widespread accidents are caused by the "design of the road network" rather than the "bad habits of certain drivers." In the Briefing paper I wrote for the North-South Institute in June 1998, I characterized the problem as "systemic instability." This instability has been brought on by the relentless drive by certain governments--led by the US and its G-7 groupies--and pressures from the financial industry itself, to liberalize the financial sector and capital-account transactions around the world.”

Spencer J. Pack (1999)
• The system of capitalism has brought long-term increases in the wealth of advanced capitalist countries

Barberton dan Lane (1999)
• “The credit and capital markets have grown too rapidly, with too little transparency and accountability. Prepare for an explosion that will rock the western financial system to its foundations.”

Lord Josiah Stamp (1937)
• “The modern banking system manufactures money out of nothing. The process is perhaps the most astounding piece of sleight of hand that was ever invented. Banking was coinceived in inequity and born in sin. Bankers own the earth; take it away from them, bt leave them with the power to create credit, and with the stroke of a pen they will create enough money to buy it back again. If you want to be slaves of the bankers, and pay the cost of your own slavery, then let the banks create money.”

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